Country Code Top-Level Domain Participation in ICANN’s Domain Abuse Activity Reporting System

Since late 2019, country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) have been able to voluntarily participate in the Domain Abuse Activity Reporting (DAAR) system designed by ICANN’s Office of the Chief Technology Officer (OCTO). The DAAR system is used to study and report on domain name registration and security threat behavior across top-level domain (TLD) registries. Today, we are happy to announce the first eight ccTLDs who joined the project, Sweden (.se), Niue (.nu), Australia (.au), Estonia (.ee), United Republic of Tanzania (.tz), El Salvador (.sv), and Malawi (.mw), are able to receive the DAAR data on a daily basis.

The data used in DAAR is obtained from both the zone files provided by the TLD registries as well as reputation data collected from a curated list of Domain Name System (DNS) reputation providers. With recent system developments, ccTLD operators can pull their own aggregated DAAR data via the Monitoring System Application Programing Interface (MoSAPI) on a daily basis. The MoSAPI interface was designed to allow registry operators to retrieve information collected by the ICANN Service Level Agreement Monitoring (SLAM) system. While ccTLD operators are not subject to the SLAs the SLAM system monitors, using MoSAPI allows for a consistent interface for all registries participating in DAAR. The aggregated data counts security threats – such as phishing, botnet command and control, malware distribution, and spam – broken down by threat type (click here for a definition of these security threat types). These data sets are the same as the generic top-level domain (gTLDs) sets that are currently provided via MoSAPI. Access to this data enables ccTLD operators to monitor the DAAR security threat levels per threat type per day.

To promote a greater understanding of abuse across the global DNS, we invite other ccTLD operators to participate in the DAAR project. To get started, ccTLD operators should send a request to to begin the process, which includes a couple of technical and administrative steps to make sure ICANN is able to download ccTLD’s zone file and the ccTLD is able to pull the data via MoSAPI. There is also a Memorandum of Understanding process in place for those ccTLDs who are willing to have one.

We want to engage with the ccTLD community to determine the best content and format for the analytics for ccTLDs participating in DAAR. For gTLDs, we currently publish a monthly report based on the DAAR data that includes anonymous and aggregated analytics. We are open to different formats and analytics that could be more useful for ccTLDs, as well as for the broader community. We would like your feedback. Please let us know what you think via our mailing list and or send us an email at
Domain Name SystemInternationalized Domain Name ,IDN,”IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet “”a-z””. An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European “”0-9″”. The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed “”ASCII characters”” (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of “”Unicode characters”” that provides the basis for IDNs. The “”hostname rule”” requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen “”-“”. The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of “”labels”” (separated by “”dots””). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an “”A-label””. All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a “”U-label””. The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for “”test”” — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of “”ASCII compatible encoding”” (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an “”LDH label””. Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as”””” is not an IDN.”

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